HOW DO TRADITIONAL MEDIA INCORPORATE STATEMENTS FROM POLITICAL ACTORS IN SOCIAL MEDIA? An analysis of the framing of Jair Bolsonaro’s tweets in Brazilian journalism

Isabele Mitozo, Gabriella da Costa, Carla Rodrigues

Resumo


This paper analyzes how three of Brazil’s largest national newspapers (Folha de S. Paulo, O Estado de S. Paulo, O Globo) addressed tweets from the President of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, in the first four months of his government. The methodology consists of a qualitative content analysis of the news motivated by the president’s publications on Twitter, as well as the messages themselves, in order to identify the framing adopted by said newspapers and whether that framing fits the approach of Bolsonaro. Moreover, the study uses descriptive statistics (Chi-square test) to identify links between the following pairs of variables: issues and frames, months and issues, months and frames. The data is composed of 351 news pieces collected from these media’s websites. The results show that conflict and moral were the issues that media covered the most concerning Bolsonaro’s tweets, and the newspapers used news and interpretive frames equally.

O artigo analisa como os tweets do presidente Jair Bolsonaro que pautaram três dos maiores jornais de circulação nacional no Brasil (Folha de S. Paulo, O Estado de S. Paulo, O Globo), nos quatro primeiros meses de governo, foram abordados pelo jornalismo. A metodologia consiste na análise de conteúdo qualitativa das notícias motivadas pelas publicações do presidente na referida rede, assim como dessas próprias mensagens, a fim de identificar o enquadramento que os jornais adotaram e se ele condizia com a abordagem de Bolsonaro. A pesquisa lança mão de estatística descritiva (Qui-quadrado) para identificar associações entre os seguintes pares de variáveis: temas e frames, temas e meses, meses e frames. Foram analisadas 351 notícias, coletadas dos webportais dos referidos jornais. Pode-se afirmar que conflito e moral foram os temas dos tweets que mais receberam atenção dos jornais, que utilizaram equilibradamente frames noticiosos e interpretativos na abordagem das mensagens analisadas.

El artículo analiza cómo los tweets del presidente de Brasil, Jair Bolsonaro, que se presentaron en tres de los periódicos nacionales más grandes de Brasil (Folha de S. Paulo, O Estado de S. Paulo y O Globo), en los primeros cuatro meses de gobierno, fueron cubiertos por el periodismo. La metodología consiste en un análisis de contenido cualitativo de las noticias motivadas por las publicaciones del presidente en Twitter, y estos propios mensajes, para identificar el marco que adoptaron los periódicos y si se ajusta al enfoque de Bolsonaro. La investigación utiliza estadísticas descriptivas (Chi-cuadrado) para identificar asociaciones entre “temas y marcos”, “temas y meses”, “meses y marcos”. Se analizaron 351 artículos de noticias, que se recopilaron de los sitios web de estos medios. Conflicto y moral fueron los temas de los tweets que recibieron la mayor atención de los periódicos, que utilizaron equilibradamente los marcos noticiosos y interpretativos en el enfoque de los mensajes.

Palavras-chave


Framing; Twitter; Journalism; Political communication

Texto completo:

PDF (English) PDF (PT)

Referências


Aldé, A. (2001). “A construção da política”: Cidadão comum, mídia e atitude política (doctoral dissertation). Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved from doxa.iesp.uerj.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/ALD%C3%89_2001.pdf

Araújo, B., & Prior, H. (2020). Framing Political Populism: The Role of Media in Framing the Election of Jair Bolsonaro. Journalism Practice, online published, 1–17. DOI: 10.1080/17512786.2019.1709881

Bichard, S.L. (2006). Building blogs: A multi-dimensional analysis of the distribution of frames on the 2004 presidential candidate web sites. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83(2), 329–345. DOI: 10.1177/107769900608300207

Carragee, K.M., & Roefs, W. (2004). The neglect of power in recent framing research. Journal of Communication, 54 (2), 214–233. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02625.x

Carreiro, R., Matos, E. (2019). Presidente eleito, e agora? Analisando as estratégias de comunicação digital no Twitter do Governo de Jair Bolsonaro. Proceedings from VIII Congresso da Compolítica, Brasília. Retrieved from ctpol.unb.br/compolitica2019/GT1/gt1_Carreiro_Matos.pdf

Costa, G., Rodrigues, C., & Mitozo, I. (2019). Twitter como rede de comunicação governamental? Uma análise do agendamento dos tweets de Bolsonaro pelo jornalismo impresso brasileiro. Proceedings from 17th Congresso da SBPJor, Goiânia. Retrieved from sbpjor.org.br/congresso/index.php/sbpjor/sbpjor2019/paper/viewFile/2187/1058

Duarte, J., & Monteiro, G. (2009). Potencializando a comunicação nas organizações. In M.M.K. Kunsch (Org.), Comunicação organizacional: linguagem, gestão e perspectivas (pp.333–359). São Paulo: Saraiva.

Entman, R. M., Matthes, J., & Pellicano, L. (2009). Nature, sources, and effects of news framing (p.175–190). In Wahl-Jorgensen, K. & Hanitzsch, T. The Handbook of Journalism Studies. London: Routledge.

Entman, Robert, M. (1994). Representation and Reality in the Portrayal of Blacks on Network Television News. Journalism Quarterly, 71(3), p. 509–520, 1994.

Entman, Robert, M. (1993). Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, New York, 43(4), p. 51-58, 1993.

Evans, A., Twomey, J., & Talan, S. (2011). Twitter as a public relations tool. Public Relations Journal, 5(1), 1-20. Retrieved from prjournal.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/Twitter-as-a.pdf

Gamson, W. (1992). The Social Psychology of Collective Action. In A. D. Morris, & C. M. Mueller (Eds.), Frontiers in social movement theory (pp.53–76). New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gamson, W.A., & Lasch, K.E. (1980). The political culture of social welfare policy. Center for Research on Social Organization, University of Michigan, Revised August.

Ghanem, S. (1997). Filling in the tapestry: The second level of agenda setting. In M. McCombs, D. L. Shaw, & D. Weaver (Eds.), Communication and democracy: Exploring the intellectual frontiers in agenda-setting theory (pp. 3–14). New Jersey: Routledge.

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. New York.

Gomes, W. (2004). Transformações da política na era da comunicação de massa. São Paulo: Paulus.

Gomes, W., Fernandes, B., Reis, L., & Silva, T. (2009). “Politics 2.0”: A campanha on-line de Barack Obama em 2008. Revista de Sociologia e Política, 17(34), 29-43. Retrieved from www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-44782009000300004

Groshek, J., & Al-Rawi, A. (2013). Public sentiment and critical framing in social media content during the 2012 US presidential campaign. Social Science Computer Review, 31(5), 563–576. DOI: 10.1177/0894439313490401

Gutmann, J.F. (2006). Quadros Narrativos Pautados pela Mídia: Framing como segundo nível do agenda-setting? Contemporânea, 4(1),25–50. Retrieved from portalseer.ufba.br/index.php/contemporaneaposcom/article/view/3481/2538

Hallin, D.C., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing media systems: Three models of media and politics. Cambridge University Press.

Hemphil, L., Culotta, A., & Heston, M. (2013) Framing in Social Media: How the U.S. Congress uses Twitter hashtags to frame political issues. SSRN, online published, pp.1–30. Retrieved from papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2317335

Kazin, M. (2016). Trump and American Populism: Old Wine, New Bottles. Foreign Affairs, 95(6), 17–24. Retrieved from www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2016-10-06/trump-and-american-populism

Kosicki, G.M. (1993). Problems and Opportunities in Agenda-Setting Research. Journal of Communication, 43(2), 100–127. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01265.x

Kreis, R. (2017). The “Tweet Politics” of President Trump. Journal of Language and Politics, 16(4), 607–618. DOI: 10.1075/jlp.17032.kre

Judis, J.B. (2016). The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics. Columbia Global Reports. New York.

Lariscy, R.W., Avery, E.J., Sweetser, K.D., & Howes, P. (2009). An examination of the role of online social media in journalists’ source mix. Public Relations Review, 35(3), 314–316. DOI: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2009.05.008

Lee, B., Lancendorfer, K.M., & Lee, K.J. (2005). Agenda-setting and the Internet: The intermedia influence of Internet bulletin boards on newspaper coverage of the 2000 general election in South Korea. Asian Journal of Communication, 15(1), 57–71. DOI: 10.1080/0129298042000329793

Lippmann, W. (2008). Opinião Pública (1st Ed) Translation and Preface by Jacques A. Wainberg. Petrópolis: Vozes.

Maher, M. (2001). Framing: an emerging paradigm or a phase of agenda setting? In Reese, S., Gandy Jr., O., & Grant, A. (Eds.). Framing Public Life (p.83-94). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Maia, R. (2009). Debates públicos na mídia: enquadramentos e troca pública de razões. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política, n.2, pp.303–340. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277986080_Debates_publicos_na_midia_enquadramentos_e_troca_publica_de_razoes

Matthes, J. (2009). What's in a frame? A content analysis of media framing studies in the world's leading communication journals, 1990-2005. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86(2), 349–367. DOI: 10.1177/107769900908600206

Marques, F.P.J., Miola, E., Mitozo, I., & Mont’Alverne, C. (2019). Similar, but not the same: Comparing Editorial and News Agendas in Brazilian Newspapers. Journalism Practice, online published, pp. 01–21. DOI: 10.1080/17512786.2019.1684833

McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D.L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36(2), 176-187. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/2747787

McCombs, M. (2005). A look at agenda-setting: Past, present and future. Journalism Studies, 6(4), 543–557. DOI: 10.1080/14616700500250438

Paletz, D.L. (2002). The media in American politics: Contents and consequences. New York: Longman.

Meeks, L. (2019). Defining the Enemy: How Donald Trump Frames the News Media. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. DOI: 10.1177/1077699019857676

Mitozo, I., Massuchin, M.G., & Carvalho, F.C. (2017). Debate político-eleitoral no Facebook: os comentários do público em posts jornalísticos na eleição presidencial de 2014. Opinião Pública, 23(2), 459–484. DOI: 10.1590/1807-01912017232459

Mont’Alverne, C., & Mitozo, I. (2019). Muito além da mamadeira erótica: As notícias compartilhadas nas redes de apoio a presidenciáveis em grupos de WhatsApp, nas eleições brasileiras de 2018. Proceeding from VIII Encontro da Compolítica, Brasília. Retrieved from ctpol.unb.br/compolitica2019/GT4/gt4_Montalverne_Mitozo.pdf

Neuman, W.R., Just, M.R., & Crigler, A.N. (1992). Common knowledge: News and the construction of political meaning. University of Chicago Press.

Nisbet, M. (2010). Knowledge into action: Framing the debates over climate change and poverty. In P. D’Angelo, & J. Kuypers (Eds.), Doing framing analysis: Empirical and theoretical perspectives (p. 43–83). New York, NY: Routledge.

Ott, Brian L. (2017). The age of Twitter: Donald J. Trump and the politics of debasement. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 34:1, p. 59-68. DOI: 10.1080/15295036.2016.1266686

Parmelee, J.H. (2013). The agenda-building function of political tweets. New Media & Society, 16(3), 434–450. DOI: 10.1177/1461444813487955

Porto, M. (2004). Enquadramentos da mídia e política. Comunicação e política: conceitos e abordagens. Salvador: Edufba.

Porto, M. (2007). Framing controversies: Television and the 2002 Presidential Election in Brazil. Political Communication, 24, pp.19–36. DOI: 10.1080/10584600601128705

Reese, S.D. (2007). The framing project: A bridging model for media research revisited. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 148–154. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00334.x

Reese, S.D., & Buckalew, B. (1995). The militarism of local television: The routine framing of the Persian Gulf War. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 12(1), 40–59. DOI: 10.1080/15295039509366918

Scheufele, D.A. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication, 49(1), 103–122. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02784.x

Scheufele, D.A. (2000). Agenda-setting, priming, and framing revisited: Another look at cognitive effects of political communication. Mass Communication & Society, 3(2-3), 297–316. DOI: 10.1207/S15327825MCS0323_07

Semetko, H. A., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2000). Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication, 50(2), 93–109. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02843.x

Stromer-Galley, J., & Baker, A.B. (2004). Joy and sorrow of interactivity on the campaign trail: Blogs in the primary campaign of Howard Dean. In A. P. Williams, & J. C. Tedesco (Eds.), The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign (pp.111–131). EUA: Rowman & Littefield Publishers, INC.

Shoemaker, P. J., & Reese, S.D. (1996). Mediating the Message. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Tedesco, J. C. (2005). Issue and strategy agenda setting in the 2004 presidential election: Exploring the candidate–journalist relationship. Journalism Studies, 6(2), 187–201. DOI: 10.1080/14616700500057270

Tuchman, G. (1978). Making news: a study in the construction of reality. New York: The Free Press.

Vlatković, S. (2018). New Communication Forms and Political Framing: Twitter in Donald Trump’s Presidential Campaign. AM Journal of Art And Media Studies, 16, p.123-134. DOI: 10.25038/am.v0i16.259

Waisbord, S., & Amado, G. (2017). Populist communication by digital means: presidential Twitter in Latin America. Information, Communication, and Society, 20(9), 1330–1346. DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2017.1328521

Wells, C., Shah, D.V., Pevehouse, J.C., Yang, J., Pelled, A., Boehm, F., & Schmidt, J.L. (2016). How Trump drove coverage to the nomination: Hybrid media campaigning. Political Communication, 33(4), 669–676. DOI: 10.1080/10584609.2016.1224416




DOI: https://doi.org/10.25200/BJR.v16n1.2020.1256

Métricas do artigo

Carregando Métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


ISSN da versão online: 1981-9854

ISSN da versão impressa (descontinuada a partir de 2008): 1808-4079



Datas de publicação da revista

30 de abril - 30 de agosto - 30 de dezembro

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.